J.M. Balkin, Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology

Cultural Software

耶鲁大学法学院巴尔金 (J.M. Balkin) 教授的《文化软件:一种意识形态理论》(Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology)一书1998年由耶鲁大学出版社出版:

In this book J. M. Balkin offers a strikingly original theory of cultural evolution, a theory that explains shared understandings, disagreement, and diversity within cultures. Drawing on many fields of study—including anthropology, evolutionary theory, cognitive science, linguistics, sociology, political theory, philosophy, social psychology, and law—the author explores how cultures grow and spread, how shared understandings arise, and how people of different cultures can understand and evaluate each other’s views.

Cultural evolution occurs through the transmission of cultural information and know-how—”cultural software”—in human minds, Balkin says. Individuals embody cultural software and spread it to others through communication and social learning. Ideology, the author contends, is neither a special nor a pathological form of thought but an ordinary product of the evolution of cultural software. Because cultural understanding is a patchwork of older imperfect tools that are continually adapted to solve new problems, human understanding is partly adequate and partly inadequate to the pursuit of justice. Balkin presents numerous examples that illuminate the sources of ideological effects and their contributions to injustice. He also enters the current debate over multiculturalism, applying his theory to problems of mutual understanding between people who hold different worldviews. He argues that cultural understanding presupposes transcendent ideals and shows how both ideological analysis of others and ideological self-criticism are possible.

最近,出版社同意将此书依 Creative Commons 协议授权公众使用。于是,我们就可以很方便地获得该书全文了:

Table of Contents and Preface (478 KB)
Chapter One: Tools of Understanding (2.3 MB)

Part I Culture
Chapter Two: Bricolage and the Construction of Cultural Software (2.3 MB)
Chapter Three: Memetic Evolution (4.0 MB)
Chapter Four: The Spread of Cultural Software (2.9 MB)

Part II Ideology
Chapter Five: Conceptions of Ideology (2.4 MB)
Chapter Six: Ambivalence and Self-Reference (2.4 MB)
Chapter Seven: Transcendence (3.4 MB)

Part III Metabricolage
Chapter Eight: Cultural Heuristics (1.8 MB)
Chapter Nine: Narrative Expectations (3.1 MB)

Chapter Ten: Homologies and Associations (3.0 MB)
Chapter Eleven: Metaphor, Metonymy and Cognitive Models (2.0 MB)

Part IV Understanding
Chapter Twelve: The Power of Understanding (2.8 MB)
Chapter Thirteen: Knowledge Made Flesh (908 KB)

Notes (3.1 MB)
Index (781 KB)

对于法学、政治学、社会学研究者来说,这是一本有益的参考书。

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