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罗杰·科特瑞尔:《法理学的政治分析:法律哲学批判导论》

社会思想译丛 ★ 新书讯

法理学的政治分析:法律哲学批判导论罗杰·科特瑞尔(Roger Cotterrell):《法理学的政治分析:法律哲学批判导论
The Politics of Jurisprudence: A Critical Introduction to Legal Philosophy),
张笑宇译,
北京大学出版社2013年。
ISBN: 9787301216736.
@豆瓣 @小组

内容简介

本书讨论法理学研究什么、它试图做什么以及如何完成这些工作,最为重要的是,它的诸多结论如何能够影响法律实践的日常问题,以及主要的社会、道德和政治观念。作者选择对几位关键法学家的观点进行分析,阐明了法律理论的一般特点,并尝试用一种职业主义和政治分析的方法,来表达这些理论。

本书第一版更多是作为学生教材使用。对此,作者开辟了他的方法,在此版中展现了自初版以来逐渐引人关注的理论中最为重要的领域。新版做了大量修订,著述更为明晰,并且恰当的评述了迄今为止的相关文献。有两章新内容处理了近十年来兴起的对英美法律哲学非常多样化的批判性进路。

New Book: Religion without God. By Ronald Dworkin

Religion without GodReligion without God. By Ronald Dworkin. (罗纳德·德沃金:《没有上帝的宗教》) Harvard University Press 2013. ISBN: 9780674726826, 0674726820.

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About This Book

In his last book, Ronald Dworkin addresses questions that men and women have asked through the ages: What is religion and what is God’s place in it? What is death and what is immortality? Based on the 2011 Einstein Lectures, Religion without God is inspired by remarks Einstein made that if religion consists of awe toward mysteries which “manifest themselves in the highest wisdom and the most radiant beauty, and which our dull faculties can comprehend only in the most primitive forms,” then, he, Einstein, was a religious person.

Dworkin joins Einstein’s sense of cosmic mystery and beauty to the claim that value is objective, independent of mind, and immanent in the world. He rejects the metaphysics of naturalism—that nothing is real except what can be studied by the natural sciences. Belief in God is one manifestation of this deeper worldview, but not the only one. The conviction that God underwrites value presupposes a prior commitment to the independent reality of that value—a commitment that is available to nonbelievers as well. So theists share a commitment with some atheists that is more fundamental than what divides them. Freedom of religion should flow not from a respect for belief in God but from the right to ethical independence.

Dworkin hoped that this short book would contribute to rational conversation and the softening of religious fear and hatred. Religion without God is the work of a humanist who recognized both the possibilities and limitations of humanity.

New Book: The Classical Liberal Constitution: The Uncertain Quest for Limited Government. By Richard A. Epstein

The Classical Liberal Constitution: The Uncertain Quest for Limited Government.
By Richard A. Epstein.
Harvard University Press 2013.
ISBN: 9780674724891, 0674724895.

The Classical Liberal Constitution: The Uncertain Quest for Limited GovernmentAmerican liberals and conservatives alike take for granted a progressive view of the Constitution that took root in the early twentieth century. Richard Epstein laments this complacency which, he believes, explains America’s current economic malaise and political gridlock. Steering clear of well-worn debates between defenders of originalism and proponents of a living Constitution, Epstein employs close textual reading, historical analysis, and political and economic theory to urge a return to the classical liberal theory of governance that animated the framers’ original text, and to the limited government this theory supports.

Grounded in the thought of Locke, Hume, Madison, and other Enlightenment figures, the classical liberal tradition emphasized federalism, restricted government, separation of powers, property rights, and economic liberties. The most serious challenge to this tradition, Epstein contends, has come from New Deal progressives and their intellectual defenders. Unlike Thomas Paine, who saw government as a necessary evil at best, the progressives embraced government as a force for administering social good. The Supreme Court has unwisely ratified the progressive program by sustaining an ever-lengthening list of legislative programs at odds with the classical liberal Constitution.

Epstein’s carefully considered analysis addresses both halves of the constitutional enterprise: its structural safeguards against excessive government power and its protection of individual rights. He illuminates contemporary disputes ranging from presidential prerogatives to health care legislation, while reexamining such enduring topics as the institution of judicial review, the federal government’s role in regulating economic activity, freedom of speech and religion, and equal protection.

New Book: Legal Orientalism: China, the United States, and Modern Law. By Teemu Ruskola

Legal Orientalism: China, the United States, and Modern LawLegal Orientalism: China, the United States, and Modern Law(《法律东方主义:中国·美国·现代法律》). By Teemu Ruskola. Harvard University Press 2013. ISBN: 0674073061, 9780674073067.

Since the Cold War ended, China has become a global symbol of disregard for human rights, while the United States has positioned itself as the world’s chief exporter of the rule of law. How did lawlessness become an axiom about Chineseness rather than a fact needing to be verified empirically, and how did the United States assume the mantle of law’s universal appeal? In a series of wide-ranging inquiries, Teemu Ruskola investigates the history of “legal Orientalism”: a set of globally circulating narratives about what law is and who has it. For example, why is China said not to have a history of corporate law, as a way of explaining its “failure” to develop capitalism on its own? Ruskola shows how a European tradition of philosophical prejudices about Chinese law developed into a distinctively American ideology of empire, influential to this day.

The first Sino-U.S. treaty in 1844 authorized the extraterritorial application of American law in a putatively lawless China. A kind of legal imperialism, this practice long predated U.S. territorial colonialism after the Spanish-American War in 1898, and found its fullest expression in an American district court’s jurisdiction over the “District of China.” With urgent contemporary implications, legal Orientalism lives on in the enduring damage wrought on the U.S. Constitution by late nineteenth-century anti-Chinese immigration laws, and in the self-Orientalizing reforms of Chinese law today. In the global politics of trade and human rights, legal Orientalism continues to shape modern subjectivities, institutions, and geopolitics in powerful and unacknowledged ways.

New Book: The Roberts Court: The Struggle for the Constitution. By Marcia Coyle

The Roberts Court: The Struggle for the ConstitutionThe Roberts Court: The Struggle for the Constitution. By Marcia Coyle. Simon & Schuster 2013. ISBN: 1451627513; 9781451627510.

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The Roberts Court, seven years old, sits at the center of a constitutional maelstrom. Through four landmark decisions, Marcia Coyle, one of the most prestigious experts on the Supreme Court, reveals the fault lines in the conservative-dominated Court led by Chief Justice John Roberts Jr.

Seven minutes after President Obama put his signature to a landmark national health care insurance program, a lawyer in the office of Florida GOP attorney general Bill McCollum hit a computer key, sparking a legal challenge to the new law that would eventually reach the nation’s highest court. Health care is only the most visible and recent front in a battle over the meaning and scope of the U.S. Constitution. The battleground is the United States Supreme Court, and one of the most skilled, insightful, and trenchant of its observers takes us close up to watch it in action.

Marcia Coyle’s brilliant inside account of the High Court captures four landmark decisions—concerning health care, money in elections, guns at home, and race in schools. Coyle examines how those cases began—the personalities and conflicts that catapulted them onto the national scene—and how they ultimately exposed the great divides among the justices, such as the originalists versus the pragmatists on guns and the Second Amendment, and corporate speech versus human speech in the controversial Citizens United campaign case. Most dramatically, her analysis shows how dedicated conservative lawyers and groups are strategizing to find cases and crafting them to bring up the judicial road to the Supreme Court with an eye on a receptive conservative majority.

The Roberts Court offers a ringside seat at the struggle to lay down the law of the land.

New Book: Reflections on Judging. By Richard A. Posner

Reflections on Judging. By Richard A. Posner. Harvard University Press 2013. ISBN: 0674725085, 9780674725089

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Reflections on JudgingIn Reflections on Judging, Richard Posner distills the experience of his thirty-one years as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. Surveying how the judiciary has changed since his 1981 appointment, he engages the issues at stake today, suggesting how lawyers should argue cases and judges decide them, how trials can be improved, and, most urgently, how to cope with the dizzying pace of technological advance that makes litigation ever more challenging to judges and lawyers.

For Posner, legal formalism presents one of the main obstacles to tackling these problems. Formalist judges—most notably Justice Antonin Scalia—needlessly complicate the legal process by advocating “canons of constructions” (principles for interpreting statutes and the Constitution) that are confusing and self-contradictory. Posner calls instead for a renewed commitment to legal realism, whereby a good judge gathers facts, carefully considers context, and comes to a sensible conclusion that avoids inflicting collateral damage on other areas of the law. This, Posner believes, was the approach of the jurists he most admires and seeks to emulate: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, Learned Hand, Robert Jackson, and Henry Friendly, and it is an approach that can best resolve our twenty-first-century legal disputes.


Review

“A deep and thought-provoking collection of insightful analyses of various aspects of being a judge, told from an insider’s perspective, but with appropriate and equally thoughtful caveats about the advantages and disadvantages of an insider’s account.”—Frederick Schauer, University of Virginia School of Law


Table of Contents

Introduction: A Judge on the Challenges to Judges
Two Kinds of Complexity
Extrajudicial Writing by Judges
Plan of the Book
Appendix: External versus Internal Complexity in Federal Adjudication

1. The Road to 219 South Dearborn Street
Education and Early Career
The Federal Judicial Appointment Process in 1981
Transition, and the Question of Initial Judicial Training

2. The Federal Judiciary Evolves
A Half-Century of Change
Input-Output, with Special Reference to the Supreme Court
Staff and Specialization in Relation to Rank

3. The Challenge of Complexity
Complexity Further Explained
Examples, Primarily from Criminal Law and Sentencing
The Impact of Technology
Judicial Insouciance about the Real
Specialization the Solution?
Internal Complexity: The Case of the Bluebook

4. Formalism and Realism in Appellate Decision Making
The Formalist Judge
The Realist Judge
Advice to New Appellate Judges

5. The Inadequate Appellate Record
Internet Research by Judges
Is a Word Really Worth a Thousand Pictures?

6. Coping Strategies for Appellate Judges I: Judicial Self-Restraint
Thayer and His Epigones
The Decline of Self-Restraint
The Rise of Constitutional Theory
Thayerism’s Death and Legacy

7. Coping Strategies for Appellate Judges II: Interpretation
The Spirit Killeth, but the Letter Giveth Life
Dreaming a Constitution
Opposites Attract and Repel
Realist Interpretation

8. Make It Simple, Make It New: Opinion Writing and Appellate Advocacy
The Signs of Bad Judicial Writing
The Writer Model versus the Manager Model
Management versus Managerialism
The Formalist Opinion
Rules of Good Opinion Writing
The Morris Opinion
Some Tips on Appellate Advocacy
Appendix: United States v. Morris (Original and Rewritten)

9. Forays into the District Court
Expert Witnesses and Trial by Jury: An Anecdotal Introduction
Party-Appointed and Court-Appointed Expert Witnesses
The Jury
Jury Trials in Patent Cases
Internet Research by Jurors
Other Issues
Appendix: Jury Instructions in Chamberlain v. Lear

10. What Can Be Done, Modestly?
Staffing
Initial Judicial Training
Continuing Judicial Education
The Widening Gap between Academia and the Judiciary
The Role of the Law Schools in Continuing Judicial Education
MOOCs to the Rescue?

Conclusion: Realism, the Path Forward
Acknowledgments
Index


Richard A. Posner is Circuit Judge, the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, and a senior lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School.

冯象:《摩西五经》修订版缀言

《摩西五经》初版是二〇〇五年春节过后脱稿的,一晃七年过去。其间于俗务之余译注了《智慧书》与《新约》,攒得些经验体会;“回头再看,就见出许多不足”(《创世记·修订版后记》),于是到了修订的时节。

译文的变动,粗粗算来,将近五千处。大多是进一步节俭文字、锤炼风格,但也有勘误、取别解或新说的。那初版的底本,原是八十年代中在哈佛念书时用的斯图加特旧版希伯来文传统本《圣经》(BHS, 1976),从《智慧书》开始,才换成第五版BHS(1997)。后者的注释,总体而言较旧版保守,反映了西方古典及中古语文研究的潮流。这次修订,生僻语词的校读,除开个别无善解多歧义的,一般就参照新版。

夹注,《摩西五经》不如《新约》详细,趁此机会增添两项内容:一是简要补充古代近东宗教、历史文化跟经文串解的知识;二是列出中文旧译一些有代表性的舛误——主要是和合本,因其流传较广,常被引用——方便读者对照查阅。

另有少数拗口的人名地名,做了减字换字或谐音意译。如《民数记》二十二章,善解城先知、比珥之子巴兰(Balaam,源自希腊语七十士本),据原文发音改作比兰(bil`am,谐音混乱,bela`);再如《创世纪》三十八章,犹大三个儿子取名厄尔、俄男、安儿(参较和合本:珥、俄南、示拉),是谐音意译,反讽暗示三人或因作恶而丧生,或未能尽到小叔娶寡嫂“替哥哥结子实”的义务,致使家庭不得安宁。

本书初版问世迄今,几乎每天收到各地读者和信友的电邮,“提问、商榷、谈心得或祝祷,于我都是极大的勉励”(《新约·前言》)。在此谨表谢忱,并希望这第二版也能给诸君送上一份“生命的粮”。昔日,见不足者有言:

如果译经是与圣者相遇,修订
便是“面对面同他交谈”
如摩西受嘱托:一次又一次
灵中狂喜,决口心堤。

二〇一二年五月于清华园

《摩西五经》(修订版),冯象译注,牛津大学出版社·香港,2013。

《经济学家》2012年最佳图书

参考:《经济学家》年度最佳图书:2011201320142015201620172018

分为政治、传记、历史、经济、科技、文化、文学七类:

The best books of 2012 were about Richard Burton, Titian, Rin Tin Tin, the revolution in Iran, the great famine in China, secret houses in London, good oil companies, bad pharma and management in ten words

Politics and current affairs

The New New Deal: The Hidden Story of Change in the Obama Era
The New New Deal: The Hidden Story of Change in the Obama Era
. By Michael Grunwald. Simon & Schuster; 528 pages.
The most interesting book so far about the first Obama administration and what the president’s $787 billion stimulus package was actually spent on, by an award-winning author and journalist. Even Republicans should read it.

The Immigrant Exodus: Why America is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent
The Immigrant Exodus: Why America is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent
. By Vivek Wadhwa. Wharton Digital Press; 106 pages.
A nation that can attract the cleverest people in the world can innovate and prosper indefinitely. An Indian-American technology entrepreneur and academic explains how America is forgetting this crucial lesson—to its cost.

Richard Posner: How Many Constitutions Can Liberals Have?

America's Unwritten Constitution: The Precedents and Principles We Live By

Richard Posner: How Many Constitutions Can Liberals Have? (Or, A Lawyer’s Dozen)

(A book review of Akhil Amar, America’s Unwritten Constitution: The Precedents and Principles We Live By)

An excerpt from the beginning part:

Actually, despite the book’s title, it is not two in one—it is twelve in one. There is not just one unwritten constitution, in Amar’s reckoning; there are eleven of them. There is an “implicit” constitution, a “lived” constitution, a “Warrented” constitution (the reference is to Earl Warren), a “doctrinal” constitution, a “symbolic” constitution, a “feminist” constitution, a “Georgian” constitution (the reference is to George Washington), an “institutional” constitution, a “partisan” constitution (the reference is to political parties, which are not mentioned in the written Constitution), a “conscientious” constitution (which, for example, permits judges and jurors to ignore valid law), and an “unfinished” constitution that Amar is busy finishing. All these unwritten constitutions, in Amar’s view, are authoritative. And miraculously, when correctly interpreted, they all cohere, both with each other and with the written Constitution. The sum of the twelve constitutions is the Constitution.

One is tempted to say that this is preposterous, and leave it at that. But it is an attempt to respond to the felt need of professors of constitutional law, and of judges who rule on constitutional cases (particularly Supreme Court justices), to find, or at least to assert, an objective basis for constitutional decisions. On the eve of the Supreme Court’s decision on the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act—a time of liberal panic—Amar was quoted as saying that if the Court invalidated the act “then yes, it’s disheartening to me, because my life was a fraud. Here I was, in my silly little office, thinking law mattered, and it really didn’t. What mattered was politics, money, party, and party loyalty.” But the constitutional “law” that matters to Amar is not what other lawyers understand law to be. It is a palimpsest of twelve constitutions, only one of which is real.

冯象:小书的朋友——《玻璃岛》Ynis Gutrin*的话

小书的故事是这样的。小书其实跟大书一样,前身也是一沓书稿,但不是手写的——从前那种绿方格子、留着宽边的稿纸,“爬格子”誊一遍,可费工夫了——小书赶上了电脑和互联网时代,稿子是打印的。邮寄当天,文档发给出版社的编辑,她就可以直接在电脑上编辑、校对了。

过了半年多,小书印出来了。封面是英国诗人罗赛蒂(1828~1882)画的绿眼睛地母女儿(Kore),一头瀑布似的卷发,手持一只血红籽粒的石榴,让人联想她从冥府归来,新春还阳、万物更生的景象。除了九篇故事,书里还有几十幅漂亮的插图。有个杭州小朋友读了,虽然不全懂,却非常喜欢小阿忒讲故事救亚瑟王那一篇。又有点疑惑:那“零隐私世界”到来,会是怎样的情形?还需要念书考试不?他见勒口有作者的电邮地址,就写了一封电邮:尊敬的冯先生,我刚看完《玻璃岛》,有很多感想,您能不能给我签个名呢?谢谢啦,不好意思打扰了!

“谢谢”一句,他原本忘了写,是找最要好的同学商量后补上的。冯先生回复说:我很想听听你的感想呢。书寄来美国太费时费钱了。这样吧,我下个月来杭州讲学,讲座安排在老杭大校园内法学楼。届时你记得带着书来,就可以签名了。

果然,讲座结束,跟学生合了影,院长说:冯兄,有两位小同学要见你。冯先生笑道:我正想找他呢,原来他是双数啊。两人过来,矮胖些的那个说:冯先生好,他是我最要好的同学,也请您签名。于是,两本书一块儿签了,还写了“好好学习天天向上”八个字。小朋友问:那么我们还要念书考试吗?冯先生答:要的。而且你读些什么,读过几遍,晚上关起门来做数学题的每一个步骤,老师和爸爸妈妈都有办法知道。到那时,人没有秘密可言。小朋友听了,吐了吐舌头,瞅着他最要好的同学;后者绷紧身子,严肃地向小书点点头。

冯象:《信与忘:约伯福音及其他》

冯象:《信与忘:约伯福音及其他》,生活·读书·新知三联书店2012年。ISBN: 9787108040299.

好人为什么受苦?这道难题,是所有宗教传统与一切社会理论、政法实践都致力于回答的;但因为关乎世人的信仰,就永远在争辩之中。

本书可看作是一个译经人和法学家的探索。作者用优美的严峻的文字,邀请我们一起诵咏圣书、阅读历史、评说戏剧、涉猎法律同文学各个领域,并为我们再现了希伯来圣经《约伯记》的“朴素、圣洁、雄健而热烈”。

信与忘:约伯福音及其他目录

苏力主编:《法律和社会科学》第八卷

《法律和社会科学》第八卷

法律和社会科学》[Law and Social Sciences] 第八卷,苏力主编,法律出版社 2012年。

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主题讨论:基层社会与司法

农田水利纠纷与乡村秩序:鄂中w村调查/焦长权
“彻底解释”农民的地权观/朱晓阳
人民法庭对绅权的转化和替代/孟庆友
基层法院办案方式的转变(1982-2008年)/朱涛
基层法院“送法下乡”的行为逻辑——以对西北某基层法院的观察为例/葛峰

评论

“地方政府都市化”策略下的户籍制度改革——以重庆户籍改革为切入点/卢 超
信息成本下的公共执法与私人参与——从“钓鱼执法”事件切入/昊义龙
网络舆情中的风险、认知与规制/胡 凌

批评:两湖平原“混混”研究

法律能否治理“混混”/王启梁/
“乡村江湖”的兴起如何可能/林辉煌
巨变年代的底层、基层与经验研究/易江波
对“混混”研究的质疑/侯猛

罗纳德·德沃金:《民主是可能的吗?:新型政治辩论的诸原则》

社会思想译丛 ★ 新书讯

民主是可能的吗?:新型政治辩论的诸原则

罗纳德·德沃金(Ronald Dworkin):《民主是可能的吗?:新型政治辩论的诸原则》(Is Democracy Possible Here?: Principles for a New Political Debate),鲁楠、王淇译,北京大学出版社2012年。ISBN: 9787301198407. @豆瓣 @小组

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内容简介

美国政治可能正出现前所未有的两极化,并遭到普遍的轻视。最近几年来,来自左右两翼、红蓝两大阵营的政治家们彼此争斗, 仿佛政治是博取啦啦队欢呼的贴身竞技一样。德沃金写道,这种结果已经变成令人深感失望的政治文化,无法面对实现社会正义的长远挑战,而这些挑战是由诸如恐怖主义的新威胁等问题所带来的。改变的希望能够实现吗?

德沃金——一位著名的世界级法律和政治哲学家,论证并捍卫了个人和政治道德性的核心原则,而这些原则为所有公民所共享。他指出,这些共享的原则能够使实质性的政治论辩成为可能,能够将互相蔑视变成互相尊重,能够引领美国和其他国家实现对民主更加完整的承诺。

约翰·卓贝克(编):《规范与法律》

社会思想译丛 ★ 新书讯

规范与法律

约翰·卓贝克(John N. Drobak)(编):《规范与法律》(Norms and the Law),杨晓楠、涂永前译,北京大学出版社2012年。ISBN: 9787301199541. @豆瓣 @小组

购买:亚马逊中国;当当网。

内容简介

本书包含了来自法律、经济学和政治学等不同领域的世界知名学者对法律和规范之间的关系提出的观点。作者们从法律、法律史、新古典经济学、博弈论、政治学、认知科学和哲学等广泛的视角,运用不同的方法对此进行了分析。这些文章探讨了规范和法律在四种语境下的关系。第一部分的文章从认知科学和行为经济学的角度分析了对法律有影响的规范。在第二部分,作者们运用三种不同类型的共有财产来分析合作的规范。第三部分的文章分析了规范对司法机构施加的限制。最后也就是第四部分探讨了正式的法律对规范的影响。

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