万象通讯 · MISCELLANEOUS

王天成诉周叶中等侵犯著作权案一审原告败诉

请看北京市第二中级人民法院的《判决书》

相关资料:

原告律师《代理词》

《新京报》的一个《处理决定》

新京报字(2006)85号
  
  关于错误刊发《王天成起诉武大博导周叶中》一文的处理决定
  
  本报3月20日A23版刊发《王天成起诉武大博导周叶中》一稿,违反了上级主管单位的有关精神,造成一定负面影响,受到上级领导的严厉批评。经调查,下列人员负有直接责任:萧国良在文化副刊部内部传达上级精神不及时,负有管理责任;编辑金秋未对此稿提出疑问即上版,负有编辑责任;记者张弘一稿两传,负有不按流程操作的责任;任世武负责当晚版面付型,没有了解与遵守有关指示精神;负有管理责任。值班副总编辑孙雪东没有最后制止这一稿子见报,负有把关责任。

  根据报社有关规定,经社委会研究,决定对相关责任人进行如下处罚:1、对金秋、张弘进行批评教育并分别扣罚1000元奖金;2、对萧国良、任世武进行通报批评,分别扣罚1000元岗位工资;3、对孙雪东扣罚2000元岗位工资,并要求其在社委会上作自我批评。
  
  社委会要求全体采编人员引以为戒,进一步加强责任心,确保上级指示的贯彻落实,相关部门负责人要进一步完善上级指示的传达执行流程,确保不再出现类似问题。
  
  新京报社社务管理委员会
  
  2006年3月21日

原告:《周叶中剽窃案:法律被停止实施了》

为何

又到了毕业的季节,让我想起了几句歌词:

说了世上一无牵挂为何有悲喜?
说了朋友相交如水为何重别离?
说了少年笑看将来为何常回忆?
说了青春一去无悔为何还哭泣?

苏力老师说:

其实入学和毕业都只是人生的片刻。“天地不仁,视万物为刍狗”,想来,在天地的眼中这一刻也不会有什么特别。只是,与之相伴的微笑和泪水表明了我们人类不完全是,或者说注定无法成为,纯粹理性的动物。我们无法超越肉身,成为自己生活的无情旁观者。许多时刻、许多地方和许多人因我们获得了特别的意义——对于我们;我们为它或他或她而感动。——《在北大法学院2006届学生毕业典礼上的致词

这也许就是答案。

理查德·罗蒂:杜威和波斯纳论实用主义与道德进步

Richard Rorty2006年4月10日,芝加哥大学法学院“杜威法律与哲学讲座”(Dewey Lecture in Law and Philosophy)的主讲人是理查德·罗蒂(Richard Rorty),他讲的题目是《杜威和波斯纳论实用主义与道德进步》(Dewey and Posner on Pragmatism and Moral Progress)。

Each year, the Law School is honored to have a visiting scholar deliver the Dewey Lecture in Law and Philosophy. As Bernard Harcourt said in his introduction to the lecture on April 10, 2006, if you were dreaming about who you would want to give the Dewey Lecture, you’d choose Richard Rorty, Professor of Comparative Literature and Philosophy at Stanford University. Rorty, an alum of the college at the University of Chicago, is one of the great titans of philosophy and generally considered to be a philospohical pragmatist. His Dewey Lecture, entitled “Dewey and Posner on Pragmatism and Moral Progress,” was very well attended and very enjoyable, and if you listen closely you’ll hear Richard Posner himself ask the very last question.

Via: Rorty on Posner and Dewey

讲座录音[MP3]

刘擎:2005年西方知识界重要事件综述

作者按 在2005年即将结束之际,笔者应报刊邀请选出今年西方人文与社会科学界具有公共影响的事件进行回顾综述。所依据的资料主要来源于欧美知识界的报刊与互联网的报道与评论。由于笔者阅读与知识的局限,以下选择与述评远非全面与客观,仅供读者参考。

1. 萨特百年诞辰纪念

今年6月21日是让-保罗·萨特的百年诞辰,法国国立图书馆举办了大型纪念展览,欧美各地为此举行许多讨论会,出版了关于萨特的新书或是特辑,报刊媒体也纷纷发表文章,纪念这位20世纪影响卓著的哲学家、作家和公共知识分子。英国《独立报》称,萨特在去世25年之后迎来了影响力的“第二波”,因为他的著作与政治生涯对于当代仍然具有高度的相关性,他的思想也仍然会引发争论和新的理解。美国学术纪念讨论会的主席Scott Mclemee指出,如果萨特的思想遗产曾一度被视为因冷战而衰落,那么现在它显得与我们所生活的世界越来越相关。萨特的著作中对于系统性的暴力、寻求解放的斗争以及恐怖主义的论述现在重新回到了人们的视野之中。当然,萨特的思想总是具有争议。美国著名作家诺曼·梅勒(Norman Mailer)认为,萨特倡导的政治理想由于缺乏道德或宗教的指南而陷入了永无根基的虚无病症之中,最终将会走向危险的死胡同。《国际先驱者论坛报》的文章指出,法国在萨特去世之后出现了几位重要的思想家,似乎早已取代了萨特的地位,但今天人们仍然怀着极大的热忱纪念萨特,这是由于他的著作涉猎极为广泛的领域,今天的年轻人总是可以从中找到与自己相关的思想线索,而更为重要的是,萨特思想所处理的一个重要问题——我们的生活是自己选择的结果,还是被我们不可控制的环境所决定的?这仍然是当代人类精神中一个最令人困扰却又是最富有感召力的问题。

堕落

北大哲学系里虽然“见不到起舞的苏格拉底”,但如今能见到“企业老板”了(《中华读书报》2005年11月23日)。这一方愿打、一方愿挨的买卖绝对是救文史哲这些“穷困潦倒”的院系于水火啊:讲国学这种好事哪能让哲学系独占了,中文系干嘛不插上一脚?历史系也赶快开班给各级党政领导讲《资治通鉴》啊!以后,MBA 的课程干脆就由商学院和文史哲院系合开吧,赚钱的同时又弘扬了中华文化,多好!

不知道世界一流大学是不是出手都很大方,反正我东方泱泱大国决不能丢份儿:花10万美元雇老布什来讲20分钟话(《南方周末》2005年11月24日),这是正宗的烧钱啊,如假保换……

北大啊北大,让人说你什么好!

ASME 评出40年来40佳杂志封面

美国杂志编辑协会(ASME)的52位资深编辑在136种杂志过去40年中的444个候选封面中评出40个最佳封面,依名次排列如下(点击小图看大图):

Rolling Stone#1 Rolling Stone (January 22, 1981)
Rolling Stone’s cover of John Lennon and Yoko Ono was named the top magazine cover to appear since 1965. The image was photographed by renowned celebrity portraitist Annie Leibovitz mere hours before Lennon was shot on December 8, 1980. The photo was eventually used on the cover of Rolling Stone’s tribute issue to Lennon on January 22, 1981.
Vanity Fair#2 Vanity Fair (August 1991)
Vanity Fair’s provocative cover shot of the naked and hugely pregnant Demi Moore (also shot by Annie Leibovitz) projected the actress to even greater heights after the huge success of the movie Ghost the previous year. The cover helped firmly establish Moore as a member of Hollywood’s A-List at the time.
Esquire#3 Esquire (April 1968)
The controversial April 1968 cover depicting Muhammad Ali impaled by six arrows appeared on the heels of his refusal to be inducted into the U.S. Army because of his religious beliefs. (Ali, convicted violating the Selective Service Act, was barred from the ring and stripped of his title.) The cover, the second of three Esquire covers defending Ali, shows the boxer martyred as St. Sebastian, a patron saint of athletes and one who was shot with arrows for his steadfast religious beliefs. This was one of the covers designed by George Lois, Esquire’s Art Director during the 1960s.
The New Yorker#4 The New Yorker (March 29, 1976)
Saul Steinberg’s March 29, 1976 The New Yorker cover, “View of the World from 9th Avenue,” has come to represent Manhattan’s telescoped perception of the country beyond the Hudson River. The cartoon showed the supposed limited mental geography of Manhattanites.
Esquire#5 Esquire (May 1969)
One of the most iconic of Art Director George Lois’s creations, the May 1969 cover of Esquire juxtaposed the celebration of pop culture while deconstructing celebrity. The image of a drowning Andy Warhol was a friendly spoof of the artist’s famous Campbell Soup artwork, a pervading symbol of the Pop Art movement.
The New Yorker#6 The New Yorker (September 24, 2001)
New Yorker Covers Editor Fran?oise Mouly repositioned Art Spiegelman’s silhouettes, inspired by Ad Reinhardt’s black-on-black paintings, so that the north tower’s antenna breaks the “W” of the magazine’s logo. Spiegelman wanted to see the emptiness, and find the awful/awe-filled image of all that disappeared the on 9/11. The silhouetted Twin Towers were printed in a fifth, black ink, on a field of black made up of the standard four color printing inks. An overprinted clear varnish helps create the ghost images that linger, insisting on their presence through the blackness.
National Lampoon#7 National Lampoon (January 1973)
National Lampoon quickly grew in both popularity in 1970s, when it regularly skewered pop culture, counterculture and politics with recklessness and gleeful bad taste. The notorious January 1973 shot of a human hand holding a revolver to the head of a docile-looking dog, who suspiciously eyes the firearm with a sideways glance, was photographed by Ronald G. Harris and is the magazine’s most memorable cover.
Esquire#8 Esquire (October 1966)
This cover story by legendary writer John Sack helped change public perception of the Vietnam War and was a landmark in the history of New Journalism. Early in 1966, when America had little more than 100,000 troops in Vietnam, Sacks became Esquire‘s war correspondent in Vietnam. At 33,000 words, the resulting article was and still is the longest ever published in Esquire. The all-black cover with the white inscription, “Oh My God—We hit a little girl,” became the cover to reflect the story.
Harper’s Bazaar#9 Harper’s Bazaar (September 1992)
Harper’s Bazaar, which debuted in 1867 as America’s first fashion magazine, celebrated its 125th anniversary in 1992, and the September 1992 issue under legendary Editor-in-Chief Liz Tilberis’s direction heralded one of the most dramatic magazine reinventions in history. Tilberis helped transform the magazine from an “also-ran” fashion magazine into the one of the most cutting-edge and experimental of the big fashion glossies—illustrated by the creative typeface and avant-garde image of Linda Evangelista on the September cover.
National Geographic#10 National Geographic (June 1985)
Photographer Steve McCurry immortalized the haunted eyes of a 12-year-old refugee in a camp on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. Soviet helicopters destroyed her village and family, forcing her to make a two-week trek out of the perilous mountains of Afghanistan. The photo became a National Geographic icon after it was published on the cover in June 1985. Since then, this raw, untouched image has been used on rugs and tattoos, making it one of the most widely reproduced photos in the world.
LIFE#11 LIFE (April 30, 1965)
The fetus became widely recognized after LIFE published Linnart Nilsson’s photograph of an 18-week-old fetus inside the womb on its April 30, 1965 cover. Swedish photographer Nilsson used an endoscope with an electronic flash to capture both the cover picture and pictures appearing inside the magazine to chronicle the beginning of human life. These pictures are part of Nilsson’s book, A Child is Born, which sold eight million copies in the first four days after publication.
TIME#12 TIME (April 8, 1966)
The question “Is God Dead?” appeared on the cover of TIME in red letters against a black backdrop, and this was the first time the magazine used a type only cover. The article, written by the editors and entitled “Toward a Hidden God,” included the opinions of Christian theologians Gabriel Vahanian, Paul van Buren, William Hamilton, Thomas J. Altizer, and the Rabbi Richard Rubenstein. They believed the “death of God” had come since God was no longer visible in public life and religion was dead. This article received much backlash from readers, but the radical movement died out by the end of the decade. This is one of two “type only” covers in the Top 40.
LIFE#13 LIFE Special Edition (1969)
This LIFE special edition “To the Moon and Back” chronicles the first moon landing, brought about by the courage of the Apollo 11 astronauts and the thousands of people who supported their mission. On the cover is a picture of Buzz Aldrin, taken by fellow astronaut Neil Armstrong. Along with color photographs of this historic walk on the moon, there are biographical sketches of Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins. There is also a history of manned space exploration from the first single orbit around the earth orbit to the launch of Apollo 11.
The New Yorker#14 The New Yorker (December 10, 2001)
This New Yorker cover by Maira Kalman and Rich Meyerowitz features a map of “New Yorkistan” where the city is divided into Middle Eastern names. The pastel map pastel map showed a flat, bird’s-eye view of New York City drawn in pen and wash. It echoed Saul Steinberg’s map “View of the World from 9th Avenue,” published on the cover of The New Yorker on March 29, 1976 (ranking no. 4 on this Top 40 list).
Harper’s Bazaar#15 Harper’s Bazaar (April 1965)
This cover of Harper’s Bazaar is a photograph of model Jean Shrimpton by photographer Richard Avedon. The cover of Shrimpton peering from behind a bright pink Day-Glo space helmet was designed by Art Directors Ruth Ansel and Bea Feitler. This photograph, with the Harper’s Bazaar logo vibrating against it in acid green has been often reproduced as an emblem of the sixties.
The Economist#16 The Economist (September 10-16, 1994)
This controversial cover of The Economist portrays “The Trouble with Mergers” by showing an illustration of two camels mating. The London-based magazine published the cover in the North American edition, but not in the European edition. Reaction to this cover was mixed, with some readers disgusted and others highly amused.
TIME# 17 TIME (June 21, 1968)
Roy Lichtenstein’s drawing of “The Gun in America” was the cover of the June 21, 1968 issue of TIME. Soon after the assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy, pop artist Lichtenstein aimed a smoking gun at readers to emphasize the urgency for gun legislation. Before the end of the year, Congress passed the Gun Control Act of 1968 that banned most interstate sales, licensed most gun dealers and barred felons, minors and the mentally ill from owning guns.
ESPN the Magazine#18 ESPN the Magazine (June 29, 1998)
This ESPN the Magazine cover portrays Michael Jordan jumping against an all-white background in his Chicago Bulls uniform. Two weeks after winning his sixth title with the Bulls, the corresponding article speculates whether or not Jordan will retire from basketball. Jordan retired on January 13, 1999, but two years later signed a deal to play for the Washington Wizards. On April 16, 2003, Jordan played his last game and announced his final retirement.
Esquire#19 Esquire (December 2000)
Bill Clinton’s appearance on Esquire’s cover at the tail end of his administration provoked ire from both sides of the political spectrum. Accompanying an extensive profile of the President in his waning weeks in office, Platon’s cover shot (the result of an 8-minute session in a cramped hotel bedroom in Princeton, NJ) was intended to evoke the Lincoln Memorial. Instead it came to be seen as fraught with sexual significance following the scandal with White House intern Monica Lewinsky.
Blue#20 Blue (October 1997)
A man diving appears on the premiere October 1997 issue of Blue. Art Director David Carson, known for his innovative typography and photography designed the cover. Editor Amy Schrier launched the first adventure lifestyle magazine, covering outdoor recreation, action sport and adventure travel for men and women. The magazine also explored the diverse cultures of the world and took a look at their political, economic and social concerns.
LIFE#21 LIFE (November 26, 1965)
“The Blunt Reality of War in Vietnam” appears on the November 26, 1965 cover of LIFE. Paul Schutzer’s photograph of a Vietcong prisoner with his eyes and mouth taped shut captured the tumultuous war. Schutzer was one of LIFE’s best photographers, but was killed on assignment while covering the Six-Day War in 1967.
George#22 George (Oct/Nov 1995)
The premiere issue of George featured supermodel Cindy Crawford on the cover dressed as George Washington. George was founded by John F. Kennedy Jr. and covered politics, current events, pop culture and celebrity news. In 1999, Kennedy was killed in a plane crash and consequently, George folded in March 2001.
The Nation#23 The Nation (November 13, 2000)
This cover of The Nation features artwork by Brian Stauffer that depicts George Bush as Alfred E. Newman. The Nation compared Bush to Alfred E. Newman, the fictional mascot of the magazine Mad, complete with a button that reads, “What, me worry?” The U.S. presidential election was held on November 7, 2000, and when this issue of the magazine was released, the winner of the election was still unclear. The issue discusses what would happen to the country and the world if Bush became president, and in fact Bush was declared the winner of the election the next month.
Interview#24 Interview (December 1972)
This cover of Interview was designed by Richard Bernstein and features Andy Warhol photographing model Grace Jones for the December 1972 issue. Warhol founded the magazine in 1969 and featured unedited interviews with celebrities along with photographs and striking ads.
TIME#25 TIME (September 14, 2001)
The cover of the September 14, 2001 special edition of TIME features a photograph of the Twin Towers terrorist bombings on September 11, 2001, taken by photographer Lyle Owerkoof. The issue included testimonies from survivors, more photographs of the Twin Towers after the bombings, and a salute to all those who perished in the tragedy.
People#26 People (March 4, 1974)
This premiere issue of People featured Mia Farrow on the cover biting a strand of pearls. Farrow was starring in the movie “The Great Gatsby” as Daisy Buchanan and the cover dubbed Gatsby the year’s next big movie. Since this issue, People has become a popular magazine of celebrity and pop culture news and is best known for yearly special issues naming “The 50 Most Beautiful People,” “The Best and Worst Dressed” and “The Sexiest Man Alive.”
Entertainment Weekly#27 Entertainment Weekly (May 2, 2003)
The Dixie Chicks appear naked on this cover of Entertainment Weekly with slogans such as “Boycott,” “Traitors,” “Hero” and “Proud Americans” printed on their bodies. Two months before, member Natalie Maines criticized the impending invasion of Iraq by President George Bush at a concert in London. This remark sparked intense criticism from many Americans who subsequently boycotted The Dixie Chicks music and concerts. In their interview with Entertainment Weekly, the group discussed their reaction to the criticism and what lies ahead for them in the country music industry.
LIFE#28 LIFE (April 16, 1965)
This black and white photograph on the cover of LIFE by Larry Burrows shows the Vietcong zeroing in on vulnerable United States helicopters. The LIFE photographer had covered the war in Vietnam since 1962 and reported this article from Da Nang. On this day, Burrows accompanied a helicopter squadron on a mission where the pilot was killed and other members of the squadron were wounded. Burrows himself was killed in 1971 while on assignment in Laos when his helicopter was shot down by enemy fire.
Playboy#29 (tie) Playboy (October 1971)
Photographer Richard Fegley took this photo of model Darine Stern sitting on a Playboy bunny chair for the October 1971 cover of the magazine. The idea came about when art designer Len Willis decided to create a chair using the famous rabbit head. Stern became the first African-American model to grace the cover of Playboy and the cover has become a classic for the magazine.
Fortune#29 (tie) Fortune (October 1, 2001)
This special edition of Fortune, entitled “Up from the Ashes,” shows a man covered in ashes after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Published less than a month after the attacks, the issue discussed the economic ramifications of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on New York City and the world.
Newsweek#31 Newsweek (November 20, 2000)
This cover of the November 20, 2000 issue of Newsweek is entitled “The Winner Is…” with a photo of half George W. Bush and half Al Gore. The presidential election had taken place earlier that month, but there was still no clear winner declared because of the close ballot count in the state of Florida. In this issue, Newsweek chronicled the lawsuits, court challenges and endless counting of ballots. The following month, George W. Bush was declared the winner of the closest presidential election in United States history.
Vogue#32 Vogue (May 2004)
Photographer Irving Penn captures Nicole Kidman’s back profile dressed in a Christian Lacroix oyster satin backless dress for this cover of the May 2004 issue of Vogue. This was the first cover shoot for Vogue by Penn since 1989. The issue contains more photographs of Kidman dressed as a Grecian goddess, an Italian diva and as legendary actress Sarah Bernhardt.
Newsweek#33 Newsweek (July 30, 1973)
This July 30, 1973 cover of Newsweek, entitled the “The Nixon Tapes,” gives an aerial view of the White House turned into a tape recorder. The article discusses how President Nixon had been secretly taping everything said in his offices and on his telephones for at least two years. The following year, the tapes were released and they proved Nixon was involved with the Watergate Scandal cover-up. In August 1974, Nixon announced his resignation and Gerald Ford became President. Ford later pardoned Nixon, immunizing him from prosecution for any crimes he may have committed as President.
Wired#33 (tie) Wired (June 1997)
This June 1997 cover of Wired is entitled “Pray,” with a picture of the Apple symbol covered in barbed wire. The article “101 Ways to Save Apple” gave an assessment of what could be done to fix the once-great company. Steven Jobs and Steven Wozniak founded Apple Computer in 1976 when they introduced the Apple I. However, by 1997, Apple saw major competition from other computer companies and experienced economic troubles. Since that time, Apple has made a comeback, due in part to the tremendous success of the iPod.
New York#35 New York (June 8, 1970)
This cover of New York is entitled “Free Leonard Bernstein,” with a photograph of New York society women posing with fists upraised. Bernstein was an acclaimed American composer and orchestra conductor who was a presence on Broadway, in Hollywood, at Carnegie Hall and at the New York Philharmonic. He supported the Black Panthers and in 1970, held a fund-raising meeting for the organization at his apartment. The magazine cover was a jab at his association with the Black Panthers and their radical ideology.
People#36 People (September 15, 1997)
This cover of People features a black and white photograph of Princess Diana, and the issue is a tribute to her life after she was killed in August 1997 in a car crash. Diana appeared on the cover of the magazine a record 52 times and was one of the most popular People cover subjects. In 1981, she married Prince Charles and arguably became one of the most famous women in the world. She was lauded for her high-profile involvement in AIDS issues and for an international campaign against landmines. Diana’s death was greeted with extraordinary public grief, and her funeral at Westminster Abbey drew an estimated three million mourners in London, as well as worldwide television coverage.
Details#37(tie) Details (February 1989)
This cover of Details features a photograph of Cyndi Lauper sporting a classic Hollywood look. In the issue, Lauper discusses her songwriting and recounts her trip to the U.S.S.R. with a group of American songwriters the previous year to collaborate with Soviet counterparts. They produced the song “Cold Sky,” which appears on the album Action Speaks Louder Than Words.
Fast Company#37 (tie) Fast Company (Aug/Sept 1997)
This cover of Fast Company is entitled “The Brand Called You,” against the Tide background. In the cover article, author Tom Peters discussed how people can market themselves as brands to stand out and move up in their professional life.
Glamour#37 (tie) Glamour (August 1968)
This issue of Glamour model Katiti Kirondi II on the cover features the “Best Dressed College Girls.” This marked the first time an African-American woman appeared on the cover of a national women’s monthly magazine. This issue featured the 10 best-dressed college girls and 100 great fall looks, which included mini-skirts and psychedelic colors.
National Geographic#37 (tie) National Geographic (October 1978)
This cover of National Geographic magazine is entitled “Conversations with a Gorilla,” with Koko the gorilla snapping a photograph of her reflection in the mirror. The photo was of such high quality and significance that it was chosen to be the cover photo for the October 1978 National Geographic article featuring Koko. Developmental psychologist Francine Patterson spent six years with Koko teaching her sign language and this led Patterson and other researchers to believe Koko displayed evidence of linguistic capabilities.
TIME#37 (tie) TIME (April 14, 1997)
This cover of TIME magazine is entitled “Yep, I’m Gay,” with a photograph of Ellen DeGeneres by celebrity photographer Firooz Zahedi. In the April 14, 1997 issue of TIME magazine, DeGeneres spoke to writer Bruce Handy and admitted to him that she was gay and this made her television’s first openly gay star. The television character played by DeGeneres on the sitcom Ellen also came out later that month and this was one of the most watched episodes of the series.

《时代》杂志评出100部最佳英语小说

评选人是《时代》评论家 Lev Grossman 和 Richard Lacayo,评选时限为1923年(《时代杂志》创刊的年份)至今,范围是全世界,语种是英语。100部小说名单如下(依篇名字母排序):

The Adventures of Augie March by Saul Bellow

All the King’s Men by Robert Penn Warren

American Pastoral by Philip Roth

An American Tragedy by Theodore Dreiser

Animal Farm by George Orwell

Appointment in Samarra by John O’Hara

Are You There God? It’s Me, Margaret by Judy Blume

The Assistant by Bernard Malamud

At Swim-Two-Birds by Flann O’Brien

Atonement by Ian McEwan

“哇塞”,俺终于知道“PK”是啥意思了!

原来一直忍着没敢向时髦人士请教。

……不过,如今比“哇塞”更常用的无疑是“PK”了。

这是又一个新新人类的新词汇。在北京和上海,翻阅当地报纸,常常会读到带有“PK”的标题:“中日韩美食大PK”、“姚明 PK伊朗小巨人”、“PK职场–情场对手”、“女人如何PK男人”、“超级女声之终极PK”、“千里马PK昔日伯乐”、“中美两国性教育大PK”、 “PK对对碰,五款超女专用笔记本计算机推荐”、“各国特色火锅PK大赛”、“日本众院选战的最火PK”……在公众媒体,“PK”竟然频率极高地出现在人们的眼前和耳边。有人说,“PK”是继Yes、No、Bye-Bye、OK之后中国人“第5个英语热门单词”。

不过,英国人和美国人都说,他们那儿根本就没有这一缩略语,从来没听说过什么“PK”的。

究竟何谓“PK”?香港人早就使用这词,是“扑街”的意思,是粤音英语拼读的简化。在中国大陆,说“PK”肯定不是这一意思了。“PK”究竟指什么,口口声声“PK”的,十之八九都说不清楚。

目前,权威的说法不外乎两种﹕计算机游戏模式“Player Kill”的缩略,意思是游戏时玩家遇对手决战;足球术语“Penalty Kick”的缩写,即足球场上的点球。可见,种种解释,也互相“PK”着。

一般而言,“PK”或许是击败、决胜、干掉、搞掂的意思,如此理解,应该不会有大的出入。

——江迅:《透视:“没女”和“PK”》

这个国庆节算没白过。

“比尔·盖茨先生,您可以歇会儿了,轮到 Google 当坏蛋了”

我的那篇批评 Google 的小文惹恼了一些拥护 Google 的同学,对此我深感遗憾。同样令我感到遗憾的是,他们的反驳并没有针对我的具体分析,而是仅仅停留在给我贴一个标签然后就得胜回朝的水平上。我的分析可能真的是没有说服力的,这不奇怪;可是你看,人家权威媒体《纽约时报》都发话了:比尔·盖茨先生,您可以歇会儿了,轮到 Google 当坏蛋了

以下是摘要内容的翻译(大意,非严格直译),看看洋人是怎么说的吧:

1. 数年以来,硅谷一直急需一家强大到能与微软抗衡的公司,如今这家公司已经出现了,它就是貌似成功的 Google。

2. 但是,硅谷的很多公司非但没有把Google归入自己的阵营,而且还对 Google 的规模和势力而感到担忧。它们的烦恼是,正是那些成就了 Google 的搜索引擎奇迹的力量使 Google 渐渐远离了孕育了它的那种企业文化,而且甚至使 Google 转变为一种威胁。

3. 现如今,每当风险投资者、企业家和技术专家在硅谷聚首的时候,他们常常会抱怨Google:从它囤积顶尖技术人才到它对同行伙伴或者潜在伙伴的所作所为。他们谈论 Google 时常用的一个词就是妄自尊大。

4. 上周 Google 计划增发1400万(40亿美元)新股的消息,只会给人们对 Google 的怨愤火上浇油。

5. PayPal 的创始人 Max Levchin 说,Google 的声誉是一根导火线,距离燃尽尚有较长距离,令他感到意外的是,Google 的声誉这么快就开始发生变化了。

6. 比尔·盖茨当然看到了 Google 和微软之间的相似之处。在今年春天《财富》杂志的一个采访中,盖茨先生称 Google 比微软的任何其他竞争对手都更像微软。

7. LinkedIn 的创始人 Reid Hoffman 说,Google 当前给硅谷创新所造成的损害大于微软此前任何时候的损害。

8. Google 使新办企业筹集资金变得更为困难。

9. 今年早些时候,Google 开除了一位在网上开它玩笑的员工,这件事在博客世界中激起了不少怒火。

10. Google 最近宣布它不搭理 CNETNews.com 了,此不搭理的有效期至2006年7月。

11. Medio Systems 的总裁 Brian Lent 说,人们曾把微软比作邪恶帝国,Google 是一个新的邪恶帝国,因为它拥有如此强大的控制能力。Google 具有控制人们获取信息路径的潜在垄断力量。

更多内容请看原文: “Relax, Bill Gates; It’s Google’s Turn as the Villain,” by GARY RIVLIN.

———
补充:《纽约时报》的这篇文章已经有了一个马马虎虎的中文编译版本:《分析:翻版微软 Google将成新“邪恶帝国” 》。不过令人感到奇怪的是,CNET 非但没有写明文章出处和作者,反而还自称是作者。

再补充:较为准确的中译文:《盖茨,您该歇歇了;该轮到Google做坏蛋了》

Google 不作恶吗?

写下这个题目之后,我以“Google 不作恶”为关键字在 Google 上搜索了一下,返回的查询结果“约有853项”,其中前十项大部分是对“Google 不作恶”这一命题表示质疑或者怀疑的文章,这一意味深长的结果是我始料未及的。排在查询结果首位的是我先前曾经读过的 shunz 写的同名文章,讲述了他在Google AdSense项目中的遭遇。我同意 shunz 的观点,在 AdSense 项目中,Google 自己既当运动员又当裁判的做法显然是……不妥当的——我也不用拐弯抹角了,我想说的就是“作恶”二字。因此,当我得知 Google 因广告交易而遭遇了官司的时候,丝毫也不感到奇怪。

下面就具体说一说 Google 的“不作恶”。

Google 宣称的“Ten things Google has found to be true”(Google 发现的十大真理)的第六条是“You can make money without doing evil”,很多人把它简化(变化?)为“Don’t be evil”,即“不作恶”。而 Google 的官方译文是:“您可以通过正当途径赚钱。”

Google 的“十大真理”的上一级标题是“Our Philosophy”(我们的价值观),从逻辑上看,这多少令人感到奇怪:真理是实证命题,而价值观是规范命题,在很多场合中,二者恰恰构成了对立的范畴,怎么就能汇合到一起呢?而且,在第一人称“我们的价值观”这个大标题下,有三个“真理”命题都是以第二人称“You”()为主语的陈述句。这到底是谁的价值观?是谁发现的真理?

而且,对比阅读现在的“Our Philosophy”和2004年6月26日的存档资料,我们可以发现,不过时隔一年,Google 对“You can make money without doing evil”的解释就发生了一些耐人寻味的变化。试举三例(引文粗体效果为引者所加):

1. The revenue the company generates is derived from offering its search technology to companies … and from advertising sales based on keyword targeting. 变成了 The revenue the company generates is derived from offering its search technology to companies and from the sale of advertising displayed on Google and on other sites across the web.

2. However, you may have never seen an ad on Google That’s because Google does not allow run-of-site ads that appear indiscriminately on every page of our results. Every ad shown must be relevant to the results page on which it is displayed, … 变成了 However, you may have never seen an ad on Google. That’s because Google does not allow ads to be displayed on our results pages unless they’re relevant to the results page on which they’re shown.
注:“you may have never seen an ad on Google.”——这样的文字游戏未免太矫情了。我想知道的是,现如今,到底还有多少使用 Google 而从未在 Google 上见过广告的地球人。

3. Google does not accept pop-up advertising or rich media ads. Text ads that are properly keyword-targeted draw much higher clickthrough rates than flashing banner ads appearing randomly. 变成了 Google does not accept pop-up advertising, which interferes with your ability to see the content you’ve requested. We’ve found that text ads (AdWords) that are relevant to the person reading them draw much higher clickthrough rates than ads appearing randomly.

解释“You can make money without doing evil”这一真理的文字一共有四段,其中谈到AdWords的这段是最长的。还有新版有而旧版无的第四段文字,也是除了 AdWords,啥都没说。可是这两段内容看来看去怎么都像是宣传 AdWords 优点的广告,与作不作恶没有什么必然联系。或者换句话说,这样绕来绕去的,Google 所谓“不作恶”无非就是有节制的广告而已。既然如此,又何必如钱钟书先生所批评的那样“精巧地不老实”,非得上纲上线到善恶的高度呢?说道这儿,我不由得想起了电影《教父》中 Michael 对 Moe Green 所说的话:“we’re talking business — let’s talk business.” 到今天,您有能说 Google 的广告和其他大多数公司的互联网广告有什么本质不同吗?

显而易见,“十大真理”新版本中修改的内容几乎都涉及到 Google 先前不做而现在却做的事情。当然,这些事情并不一定都是“恶”的,但归纳其大方向,应该可以套用那句俗语,Google 逐渐在由“为人民服务”转向“为人民币服务”。至于这种修改行为本身如何评价,笔者暂时不表态了,就让它“见仁见智”去吧。

上述评论并不是批评 Google 的转向本身,因为 Google 自己说得很清楚:“Google 是一个企业。” 赚钱必然是它最主要的目的。至于“不作恶”,就像承诺不违法犯罪一样,本是无需言明的题中应有之意,特意提出来宣传一下,只能是自我标榜的商业噱头。而且这一标榜是如此巧妙:如上所述,通过这样一个以“您”为主语的陈述句,Google 似乎隐身了。然而也恰恰是这句“You can make money without doing evil”透露出了Google 的傲慢乃至无礼。怎么,您没听出来?让我给您举个例子吧:假如有人对您说“您不偷别人的东西也可以赚钱”,您听了这话会怎么想?所以,再一次地,毫不奇怪,Google 的官方译文把这句话变通为“您可以通过正当途径赚钱。”至于像洪波等人那样,对Google把“Don’ be evil”写进公司的价值观的做法持一种欣赏的态度,我只能说,这是爱屋及乌。通过上面的分析可以看出,“Evil”在这里其实是一个相当空洞的语词,Google 完全可以随着时间的推移,赋予它不同的含义和解释。就此而言,拿“Don’ be evil”和朱镕基先生给国家会计学院题写的“不做假账”的校训比一比,就高下立见了。

说了这么多,是不是吹毛求疵、咬文嚼字呢?自认为不是。说 Google “作恶”并不是没有根据的空穴来风。本文开头提到的“Google 不作恶”的搜索结果就提供了若干旁证。还有,Google “封杀” News.com 难道不是“作恶”吗?在搜索结果上方增加广告难道不是“作恶”吗(而且居然大言不惭地说,这样做既提高了广告效果又提升了用户体验)?与“坏人”为伍难道不是“作恶”吗?如果这些还都算不上“evil”的话,到底怎样才算“evil”呢?清高到“不作恶”之程度的 Google 难道耻于把自己混同于普通人民群众吗?

参考:
“比尔·盖茨先生,您可以歇会儿了,轮到 Google 当坏蛋了”
Google:不作恶,除非是为了更大的善
Google 威胁退出中国

Web 2.0(3.0?)是一种态度

今天看到老六的短文《喧嚣之后,Web2.0能剩下点什么》,颇有同感,只是我不同意他引述的吕欣欣的观点,即Web2.0需要一个标志性的事件。一个“大筐”,一个说不清、道不明的概念,能有什么“标志性的事件”?即使有,又怎能论证所谓的“标志性”不是一个人为贴的标签?

昔日,法学研究中曾有为人诟病的“概念法学”,如今,以“Web2.0”为代表,一部分IT人士也玩起概念来了。搞技术的人本该富有务实精神,他们之所以变得贪“玩”了,我想无非是有意无意、直接间接受到资本力量的驱动而已。——这里我先一刀切了,得罪之处请多包涵。

就“Web2.0”而言,我大体赞同Sun公司网络技术主管Tim Bray的观点:“web2.0”是一个虚构的概念。它不仅是一个空洞的市场营销词汇,而且是错误的。就个人的互联网体验来说,实质性变化的表征之一是Google的崛起而且成为用户日常网络实践中不可或缺的工具,第二个变化表现为聚合(syndication)技术与博客的发展使网络由“图书馆”转变为“事件流”(event stream)。所以——按照Bray的说法——我们中的很多人已经处于Web3.0了。(Bray认为,可能只有USENET才是真正的web1.0。)

在“Web2.0时代”里,上述观点近乎“异端”,因此难免会有各种不同意见,比如詹膑说:“那些认为web2.0是炒作概念的人忽视了互联网在泡沫后沉潜的这几年中发生的大大小小变化,一些应用和商业模式或者概念在这几年里获得了发展,才导致web2.0的出现。”这与另一位Tim——Tim O’Reilly(Web2.0大会就是由他创办的O’Reilly Media公司主办的)——对上述Bray文章的批评大同小异:反正互联网的发展出现了一些新气象,管它叫“Web2.0”,有什么不可以呢?O’Reilly说,人们实际使用的词汇就是正确的词汇,而且他还不太厚道地称Bray为“语言纯正癖者”,并自称“语言实用主义者”。Bray的反驳针锋相对:作为一个为《牛津英语词典》工作多年的人,他对O’Reilly所谓“人们实际使用的词汇就是正确的词汇”的观点赞同得无以复加。但是(!),Bray紧接着说,作为这个星球上的语言学顶级巨制的《牛津英语词典》从来没有讲过词汇应该如何使用,它只是描述人们是如何使用词汇的,而且伴之以例证。虽然O’Reilly可以说“Web2.0”已成为一个常用词汇,但同样重要的是人们是如何使用这个词的。Bray对在细节上O’Reilly的“Web2.0”提出两点反驳:

1. O’Reilly说Web2.0的模式可以通过“长尾”赢利;Bray说他打赌多数以赢利为目标的人最终都会失败。赢利的想法是1999年互联网风潮中的一种疾病——总是想着怎么赚用户的钱,而不是考虑怎样满足用户的需要。

2. O’Reilly说,在Web2.0时代,人们开始意识到通过网络传递的服务比构架网络的软件更为重要;Bray则认为数据和超链接才是网络的核心。……

那么,到底如何看待这幅Web2.0的图画呢?到底什么才会是真正的热点呢?Bray提出了一个很简单的预测、评判指标:当很多人都突然开始使用某种东西时,你就可以断定它很重要。但是这一判断有一些前提:那种东西之所以一下子为很多人所使用,不是因为有人授意,也不是因为管理者、分析人士、预言家这样说,而是因为那东西真的能满足人们的需要或者爱好。始于二十年前的个人电脑的普及和始于十年前的网络的平民化都是最明显的例证。

公道地说,像Bray这样后现代地把web2.0彻底解构掉确实有点极端。玩概念当然不好,可是也没有必要偏要和某一个语词较劲儿。因此,我看不妨学学Ian Davis的中庸之道,把Web2.0理解为一种态度而非技术

Web 2.0 is an attitude not a technology. It’s about enabling and encouraging participation through open applications and services. By open I mean technically open with appropriate APIs but also, more importantly, socially open, with rights granted to use the content in new and exciting contexts. Of course the web has always been about participation, and would be nothing without it. It’s single greatest achievement, the networked hyperlink, encouraged participation from the start. Somehow, through the late nineties, the web lost contact with its roots and selfish interests took hold. This is why I think the Web 2.0 label is cunning: semantically it links us back to that original web and the ideals it championed, but at the same time it implies regeneration with a new version. Technology has moved on and it’s important that the social face of the web keeps pace.

——说白了,Web2.0就是要拨乱反正。可是这里有一个问题:如果原初的互联网是Web1.0的话,那么“乱”了(Davis所谓“the web lost contact with its roots and selfish interests took hold”)的网络才应该是Web2.0啊,再拨乱反正,就是Web3.0了。难怪Tim Bray说“不是2.0”,而是3.0呢。简直快成绕口令了。同志们,“概念IT”害死人啊!

Google(搜索引擎)的搜索服务侵犯版权了吗?

(补记:读者或可参考这篇文章:《搜索引擎引发的版权危机》)

WebProNews报道,成人娱乐网站Perfect10.Com近日将Google和亚马逊告上法庭,称它们的搜索服务非法使用了该网站享有版权的图片。(戴寻严:中文编译稿)上述报道没有进一步说明该案的法律与事实争议,然而可以预见,这一案件必将对搜索引擎、进而对互联网的发展产生重大甚至深远的影响。

互联网搜索引擎的服务侵犯被索引网站及其作品的版权了吗?这是一个有点复杂的问题,笔者曾经对此有过简单的评论,此次Perfect10.Com的诉讼使这一问题表面化了,我也正好借此机会把思路再整理一下。

笼统地说,搜索引擎服务商至少在某些时候是侵犯版权的。具体可以从两个方面来讨论:

一、搜索结果页面对于享有版权的作品的引用。搜索引擎的工作是“索引”,用户在输入搜索关键词并点击搜索按钮之后,几乎所有的搜索引擎在返回的搜索结果页面中都要引用关键词所在网页的少量语句(Google中文搜索目前引用的长度是116个汉语字符)。这一功能是相当重要的,因为否则的话,用户可能就不得不依次打开搜索得到的每一个链接,然后才能确定它是否对自己有用。一般来说,上述搜索结果页面中的少量语句引用应该属于版权法上的“合理使用”,因此并不构成侵权。但有一个值得探讨的问题是,在被引用的作品十分简短的情况下(例如泰戈尔《飞鸟集》中的一些诗以及顾城的《一代人》),搜索结果页面就会不可避免地引用该作品的全文,这时候还能用“合理使用”作为对抗版权人的抗辩理由吗?

二、“网页快照”(或者称“缓存页面”)对于享有版权的作品的使用。就版权而言,这里的问题比较大。“网页快照”功能是通过将被索引网站的网页内容较为完整地复制、保存于搜索引擎服务器实现的,其目的是在被索引网页无法正常访问的情况下,搜索引擎可以通过其“备份”的文件向用户再现目标网页内容。我们知道,网页的组成元素通常包括文字、图片、动画、音乐、版式设计等,这些东西都是版权的“载体”,而且版权(与商标、专利不同)是一种“自动”产生的权利,因此可以说网页上的版权是无处不在的,搜索引擎对于被索引网页的复制与再现就至少涉嫌侵犯了中国《著作权法》上的“信息网络传播权”。而且,由于“网页快照”和与之对应的真实网页的内容是不同步的,因此它就不能反映(至少是不能及时地反映)版权人在“真实网页”上对于自己作品的修改、删除等行为,尤其是当这些行为具有法律涵义时,那些由于“时差”而与“真实”世界不相符合的“网页快照”就可能引发更多的纠纷。

尽管网站管理员可以通过robots.txt文件设置拒绝网络漫游器索引和保存“网页快照”的协议,但问题是,该robots.txt文件的设置并不是被索引网站的义务。症结恰恰就在这里!我甚至认为这会是解决搜索引擎所面临的版权问题的一把钥匙:现在的默认状态是,搜索引擎索引一切可以访问的网站,除非被索引网站通过robots.txt文件宣告拒绝索引。解决方案是:把robots的协议由默认接受索引改为默认拒绝索引,即,仅当网站管理员通过robots.txt文件指示网络漫游器索引自己网站的时候,搜索引擎才对该网站加以索引并保存“网页快照”。这样一来,就可以把robots.txt文件要求索引的指示视为网站对于搜索引擎的版权授权,上述大部分版权问题由此可以迎刃而解。

最后,就像Google这样在中国没有独立分支机构(也没有服务器设在中国)的企业来说,即使其索引服务侵犯了中国作者的版权,依据目前的中国法,权利人也不易得到法律救济。《最高人民法院关于审理涉及计算机网络著作权纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释》(2003年修订版)第一条规定:

网络著作权侵权纠纷案件由侵权行为地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。侵权行为地包括实施被诉侵权行为的网络服务器、计算机终端等设备所在地。对难以确定侵权行为地和被告住所地的,原告发现侵权内容的计算机终端等设备所在地可以视为侵权行为地。

由此可见,中国法院对于此类版权侵权案件没有管辖权。然而问题显然不限于此:尽管本文对于搜索引擎的讨论以Google为例,但版权侵权问题是包括国内搜索引擎服务商(如百度)在内的所有经营互联网搜索业务的公司都要面对的问题。(据传)有的人通过不光彩的手段遮住了Google的“网页快照”,可自己呢,恁大一家要去NASDAQ的公司,竟然还停留在错别字阶段(“××快照为网络故障时之索引……”)。在法律上,这也叫歪打正着呢!不由得让人想起“州官放火”与“百姓点灯”的比喻。

沈明:也说互联网“去中心化”——与洪波商榷

对牛乱弹琴”之“东拉西扯”终于说到了《中心化与个人》,我也忍不住想说几句。

洪波(KESO)的“错误”在于,作为一个明星网志作者,他不应该写这个“中心化与个人”的问题。因为在(1)反中心化的立场和(2)明星网志作者这两个前提之下,他不可能逻辑周延地书写,特别是关于他自己在公共话语空间中的位置。

我的看法是:在网志世界中,读者(或者“fans”)数量多,就是中心化。如果说,网志和门户网站、其他新闻网站一样都是媒体的话(网志作者们不是纷纷说“we the media”吗?),那么就此而言,网志和门户网站就没有什么本质上的不同。也因此,纯粹新闻性的个人网志是没有前途的,因为他们没法和真正的传媒企业竞争,或者退一万步说,他们至多成长为新的传媒企业(一个畸形的例子就是“博客中国”),即脱离个人网志的队伍。即使个人网志的队伍加起来,也没法和传媒企业竞争,因为在这时候,非中心化恰恰成为了致命缺陷。对于媒体而言,如果受众数量多还不是中心化的话,那么什么才是中心化呢?

洪波说:“中心化的核心在于,一个机构客观上控制了大多数资源。以新浪为例,因为新浪几乎成为传统媒体在互联网上面对读者的惟一通道,成为一个事实上的信息资源中心,所以新浪就成为一个中心,并具备了通过议程设置引导甚至误导用户的能力。此外,新浪还从这种中心化中获得了广告和其他的利益。”以控制资源的数量来界定中心化,原则上我同意这一点,然而洪波没有说明的是,“资源”的内涵到底是什么,包含哪些内容。现如今,人们不是常说注意力是一种稀缺资源吗,一个控制了很多注意力(就是说,具有很多受众)的媒体算不算中心化呢?我认为算。在指出“新浪与大多数传统媒体签署了内容授权协议,让大多数传统媒体变成了它的签约供稿者”之后,洪波得出结论“新浪则成为这种雇佣关系中的雇主”,我觉得这是相当意气用事的说法,在我看来,这件事不过是普通的商业交易和市场分工而已。至于广告收入等等,就更没什么好说的了:商人(合法地)赚钱难道不是好事吗?(自从十一届三中全会以来,这甚至是我们党和政府的工作重点。)谁会愿意生活在一个商人不赚钱或者没有商人的社会中?

和洪波谈到的“新浪”相比,“对牛乱弹琴”不算中心化(“其实,我的blog的读者不算多”),然而在中文网志领域中,有目共睹,“对牛乱弹琴”已经非常中心化了,而且就上面说过的“媒体”这一点而言,“对牛乱弹琴”的中心化和新浪的中心化并没有本质的不同。——对于这一点可能会有种种反驳意见,我预先的回应是:对于所有网志作者来说,尤其是对于洪波来说,DONEWS并不是最好的(也不是第二好的)BSP(从技术性角度来评价),为什么他的网志始终还“坚守”在那里呢?至于洪波所说的“光Bloglines上拥有几千乃至数万订户的,就不在少数,他们都中心化了吗?恰恰相反,他们反映的是去中心化的力量”——这是我无论如何都不能同意的。

在另一篇文章《RSS与互联网去中心化》中,洪波把互联网去中心化的希望寄托于RSS等技术:blog和RSS本质上“都是基于个体的,去中心化的。……RSS的个人性,表现在它的聚合是为了满足个人需要的。”这同样难以令人信服。在“是为了满足个人需要的”一语前面,我们到底可以放上去多少个不同的主语,有谁能说得清?再说,RSS也是“天下之公器”,传统媒体巨头们(CNN、NYT、Washington Post、BBC等)不也纷纷采用了RSS服务吗?去中心化,肯定要靠技术手段,然而未必是RSS之类的技术。“代码就是法律”,“架构就是政治”,去中心化实际上是一个政治问题,它也许只能通过具有“法律”效力的代码所构建的技术架构才能实现(前提是,去中心化是一个可能追求而且值得追求的目标)。就此而言,RSS、Web 2.0之类的热门话题与“去中心化”的关联程度其实还不及GWF及其背后的Cisco之类的企业政治行为呢。

就像其他一些流行的观念一样,反中心化的立场也是一种意识形态。中心化固然会带来种种弊端(其实人们总是在享受着中心化的好处的同时批评其弊端的。请想一想微软和Google吧。对了,你猜着了,我要说的就是那个词儿——“不厚道”),然而,一个大致合理的世界不过是通过较为公平的竞争由一些“中心”取代另一些“中心”而已。一个没有中心的世界是不可想象的。换句话说,叶芝所谓“一切都四散了,再也保不住中心”在“基督重临”之前的此岸世界是不可能发生的。

有点扯远了,回到开头的问题,总结一下:洪波是一位明星网志作者,他拥有数量众多的读者和“fans”——如果这是一个大家都能认可的事实的话,那么,他就只能放弃反中心化的立场,至少(其实是至多)不公开(书写)自己在这一问题上的立场。《中心化与个人》这篇短文的发表不禁使我猜测,洪波兄似乎忘记了维特根斯坦的箴言:对于那些不可说的东西,我们必须保持沉默。

Grassroots是“草根”吗?

本来我不想再写这样咬文嚼字的东西了,可是今天看到洪波的《与刘一赐喝咖啡:谁是草根?》,还是忍不住想“酸文假醋”一把。

在中文网志中,英文“grassroots”一词通常被译作“草根”,这实际上是一个望文生义的错误译法。“草根”的译法已经流传了一段时间了,Dan GillmorWe the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People 一书的中文翻译项目的启动,甚至使“草根”大有流行之势了。

Grassroots,查查权威的英文词典或者陆谷孙先生主编的《英汉大词典》,并没有什么“草根”的义项,在相关语境中,其涵义大约就是“大众”、“民众”、“百姓”,或者至多是“草民”。没错,上述这些意思都是通过“草根”这一字面涵义引申、比喻而来的,可久而久之,“grassroots”已经具有脱离了原初涵义的独立意义,就不应该再把它“还原”回去了。这就好比“copyright”一词,本意是“复制权”,可现在人们都管它叫“版权(著作权)”了,您还能非说它就是“复制权”吗?再说,翻译也不能只顾一头,在汉语中,“草根”就是草根,并没有“大众”、“民众”之类的比喻义。不知别人有没有这种感觉,反正我自从第一次听到“草根”这个词开始就觉得挺别扭。

而且,值得注意的是,“grassroots”在中国和在美国之类的发达国家之间有一种错位:在中国,bloggers在很大程度上不是grassroots。即使在美国,也不完全是。在我看来,“grassroots”其实只是bloggers为自己争取政治、言论地位而使用的一种修辞手段。(当然,这并不是说“grassroots”就是一种修辞学意义上的比喻。)

顺便再说一下“We the Media”:

We the Media显然是从美国宪法的首句“We the People”(可参考We the People)借用来的。“media”一字,大约是从M. McLuhan的名著Understanding Media开始流行起来的,何道宽把它译作“媒介”,显然不如“媒体”好。考虑到美国宪法的“典故”,也许只能把“We the Media”译作“我们媒体”或者“我们传媒”了。

不当之处,还请方家指教。

G. 爱德华·怀特:《宪法与新政》

The Constitution and the New DealG. 爱德华·怀特:《宪法与新政》,哈佛大学出版社,2000年。

G. Edward White, The Constitution and the New Deal, Harvard University Press, 2000.

Honorable Mention 2001 Professional/Scholarly Publishing Annual Award Association of American Publishers Law Category

In a powerful new narrative, G. Edward White challenges the reigning understanding of twentieth-century Supreme Court decisions, particularly in the New Deal period. He does this by rejecting such misleading characterizations as “liberal,” “conservative,” and “reactionary,” and by reexamining several key topics in constitutional law. Through a close reading of sources and analysis of the minds and sensibilities of a wide array of justices, including Holmes, Brandeis, Sutherland, Butler, Van Devanter, and McReynolds, White rediscovers the world of early-twentieth-century constitutional law and jurisprudence. He provides a counter-story to that of the triumphalist New Dealers. The deep conflicts over constitutional ideas that took place in the first half of the twentieth century are sensitively recovered, and the morality play of good liberals vs. mossbacks is replaced. This is the only thoroughly researched and fully realized history of the constitutional thought and practice of all the Supreme Court justices during the turbulent period that made America modern.

参考:电子书收藏

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